Engineering College

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The interp1 function takes three arguments: the time data, the pressure data, and the new time value to interpolate to. It returns the interpolated **pressure **value corresponding to the new time **value**. In this case, the interpolated pressure value corresponding to newTime = 5.5 is stored in the variable newPressure.

The given problem can be solved using the 'interp1' function in MATLAB. The interp1 function is used to perform linear interpolation between data points in MATLAB.

Let's start the solution, The given time data and pressure data can be **plotted **using the following MATLAB code:>> plot(time data, pressure data)

This will produce a plot of the **pressure **data versus time data. Now, to estimate the pressure value for a given time value using linear interpolation, the following MATLAB code can be used:

>> newTime = 5.5; % example new time value

>> newPressure = interp1(timeData, pressure data, new time);

The interp1 function takes three arguments: the time **data**, the pressure data, and the new time value to interpolate to. It returns the interpolated pressure value corresponding to the new time value. In this case, the interpolated pressure value corresponding to newTime = 5.5 is stored in the variable newPressure.

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## Related Questions

A police force are testing a facial recognition system to identify known criminals in crowds. If an individual is a known criminal then the system correctly identifies them as a known criminal 80% of the time. However, the system falsely identifies 20% of the individuals that are not known criminals as being known criminals. The system is deployed in a crowd in which 5% of the individuals are known criminals. What is the probability that an individual identified by the system as being a known criminal is actually a known criminal? [20%]

### Answers

Facial recognition is a type of **technology **that is used to identify an individual by examining their face. A police force is testing this technology to recognize known criminals in a **crowd**. It is capable of accurately recognizing an individual as a known criminal 80% of the time.

To calculate the probability that an individual identified by the **system **as a known criminal is genuinely a known criminal, the formula is required:

P(Known criminal/Recognized as a known criminal) = P(Recognized as a known criminal/Known criminal) * P(Known criminal) / P(Recognized as a known criminal)

P(Recognized as a known criminal/Known criminal) = 0.8 (given)

P(Known criminal) = 0.05 (given)

P(Recognized as a known criminal) = P(Recognized as a known criminal/Known criminal) * P(Known criminal) + P(Recognized as a known criminal/Not known criminal) * P(Not known criminal)

P(Recognized as a known criminal/Not known criminal) = 0.20 (given)

P(Not known criminal) = 1 - P(Known criminal) = 1 - 0.05 = 0.95

P(Recognized as a known criminal) = 0.8 * 0.05 + 0.2 * 0.95 = 0.23

Substituting the values in the formula:

P(Known criminal/Recognized as a known criminal) = 0.8 * 0.05 / 0.23 = 0.1739

The probability that an individual identified by the system as a known criminal is genuinely a known criminal is 0.1739 or 17.39% (rounded to the **nearest **hundredth), which is less than 20%.

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You have been tasked with coding the multi-processor thread scheduling algorithm. You have been given the following parameters:

Threads should be scheduled in groups.

While CPU usage does not need to be optimal, the system should try to waste as few blocks as possible.

IO interrupts are likely, but context-switching should be minimized when possible.

Each thread in the group needs to communicate with another thread in that group.

Given these parameters, would you recommend time-sharing, space sharing, or gang scheduling? Why?

### Answers

According to the given parameters, the recommended type of scheduling among time-sharing, space **sharing**, and gang scheduling is "**Gang Scheduling**".

Threads should be scheduled in groups: This is where the concept of Gang scheduling comes into play. Gang scheduling schedules a group of threads **simultaneously **onto multiple processors in a tightly coupled **multiprocessor **system. In this way, every thread in the group can run on its dedicated processor at the same time. Therefore, using Gang scheduling will meet this criterion effectively. While CPU usage does not need to be optimal, the system should try to waste as few blocks as possible:

Gang scheduling ensures that when all threads of a group have arrived, they are scheduled together as a unit, resulting in less time wasted as blocks. IO **interrupts **are likely, but context-switching should be minimized when possible: This feature is fulfilled by gang scheduling, because with this scheme context switching is minimized since the processors for each gang are only switched once all of the threads in that gang have completed their execution. Each thread in the group needs to communicate with another thread in that group: Gang scheduling can be used because it allows threads to **communicate **with one another in the group, making communication between threads easier and more efficient.

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Suppose a 25 kV, 60 Hz feeder feeds multiple loads, with one of them is the factory load. It absorbs an apparent power of 4600 kVA. Nonlinear loads in the plant produces a 5th and 29th harmonic current. Compared to the fundamental current, the 5th harmonic has a value of 0.12 p.u. and the 29th harmonic has a value of 0.024 p.u. The feeder at the point of common coupling (PCC) has a short circuit capacity of 97 MVA. (i) Illustrate the single line diagram of the power network discussed in the question. (2 marks) (ii) Draw an impedance diagram showing progressive distortion of the system voltage when it goes further downstream towards the load. (2 marks) (111) Calculate the reactance ‘Xs' of the feeder

### Answers

The **reactance** of the feeder was calculated to be 6.45 Ω, which indicates that there is** less resistance** to the change in current.

i) The single line diagram of the **power network **discussed in the question is illustrated below:

ii) An impedance diagram is shown below, showing progressive distortion of the system voltage when it goes further downstream towards the load. It can be observed that with the increase in the number of branches and nonlinear loads, there is a progressive distortion of the system voltage.

iii) Given, **Apparent power** absorbed by the factory load, S = 4600 kVA

Voltage of the feeder, V = 25 kV

**Short-circuit capacity** of the feeder, SC = 97 MVA

We know that the formula for calculating the reactance is:

X = V2 / SCS = 4600 kVA,

V = 25 kV and SC = 97 MVA

X = V2 / SC

Solving the above expression:

X = (25kV)2 / (97 MVA)

X = 6.45 Ω

The single-line diagram of the power network discussed in the question is shown above. The impedance diagram was also illustrated, showing progressive distortion of the system voltage when it goes further downstream towards the load. The reactance of the feeder was calculated to be 6.45 Ω, which indicates that there is less resistance to the change in current. Hence, it can be concluded that the feeder is well-designed, and it can handle the load effectively without any significant power losses.

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Design synchronous counter using J - K Flip-Flops and any necessary logic gates to count the sequence [0, 2, 3] when the control lines [X Y: 00 01] and count the sequence [3, 2, 0] when the control lines [X Y: 10 11]. The disallowed states should be returned to zero state

### Answers

Design of **synchronous counter **using J-K flip-flops and logic gates to count the sequence [0, 2, 3] when the control lines [X Y: 00 01] and count the sequence [3, 2, 0] when the control lines [X Y: 10 11]. **Disallowed states** should be returned to zero state.

STEP 1: To start with the design, we need to draw the state diagram. For the given sequence [0, 2, 3], we have to design a three-bit synchronous counter. The initial state of the counter is “000”.STEP 2: Based on the given sequence, we have the following transition states:0 → 2 → 3 → 0In this case, J-K flip-flops are used to design the synchronous counter. For a three-bit synchronous counter, three J-K flip-flops are used.STEP 3: Following is the table that defines the inputs (J, K) of the J-K flip-flops corresponding to the states in the **transition table**.From the above table, we can obtain the following **K-Maps**: For J1: K-Map of J1 For K1: K-Map of K1 For J2: K-Map of J2 For K2: K-Map of K2 For J3: K-Map of J3 For K3: K-Map of K3 STEP 4: By using the above K-Maps, we can obtain the Boolean expressions for each input of the J-K flip-flops.

J1 = X’ Y’ Q2 + X Y’ Q1’J2 = X’ Y Q3 + X Y’ Q1’J3 = X Y Q1’ Q2’ Q3’ + X’ Y Q1 Q2 Q3K1 = X Y’ Q1’ + X’ Y Q2’K2 = X Y’ Q2 + X’ Y Q3’K3 = X Y Q1’ Q2’ + X’ Y Q2 Q3’

STEP 5: The next step is to design the circuit diagram. For designing the circuit, we need to use AND gates, OR gates, and NOT gates based on the above obtained **Boolean expressions**. The below figure shows the circuit diagram of the synchronous counter designed using J-K flip-flops and logic gates. Synchronous counter: A synchronous counter is a type of counter where all the flip-flops in the counter are triggered together by the same clock pulse. The outputs of all the flip-flops are interconnected to generate the next state of the counter. The circuit design of synchronous counter is simple and is usually made up of flip-flops and logic gates. The state of the counter changes according to the clock pulse input and the logic of the counter. Synchronous counters are used for counting, timing, and generating specific waveforms.J-K Flip-flop: A J-K flip-flop is a type of flip-flop circuit where J and K are the inputs of the flip-flop and Q and Q’ are the outputs of the flip-flop. J-K flip-flops are the most versatile type of flip-flops. They can be used as toggle flip-flops, pulse generators, and shift registers. The J-K flip-flop can be used to count or store binary data.Logic gates: Logic gates are the building blocks of digital circuits. Logic gates are used to perform logic operations on binary data. The three basic logic gates are AND, OR, and NOT gates. Other logic gates such as NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR gates are derived from these basic gates.

From the above discussion, we can conclude that the synchronous counter designed using J-K flip-flops and logic gates can be used to count the sequence [0, 2, 3] when the control lines [X Y: 00 01] and count the sequence [3, 2, 0] when the control lines [X Y: 10 11]. The disallowed states are returned to the zero state. The circuit design of synchronous counter is simple and is usually made up of flip-flops and logic gates. The state of the counter changes according to the clock pulse input and the logic of the counter.

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Algorithm Design Consider the problem of finding the distance between the two closest numbers in an array of n numbers, such as "45, 58, 19, 4,26,65, 32,81". (The distance between two numbers x and y is computed as |x - yl.) Design a presorting-based algorithm (10 points, implementing in C++, for sorting algorithm, you can just make a call to the quicksort algorithm you implemented in question 1) for solving this problem and determine its efficiency class

### Answers

Many consider the** object-oriented **programming (OOP) language TC++ to be the finest one for **developing **complex programs.

The program has been given below:

#include <iostream> using namespace std; int partition(int arr[], int start, int end) { int pivot = arr[start]; int count = 0; for (int i = start + 1; i <= end; i++) { if (arr[i] <= pivot) count++; } // Giving pivot element its correct position int pivotIndex = start + count; swap(arr[pivotIndex], arr[start]); // Sorting left and right parts of the pivot element int i = start, j = end; while (i < pivotIndex && j > pivotIndex) { while (arr[i] <= pivot) { i++; } while (arr[j] > pivot) { j--; } if (i < pivotIndex && j > pivotIndex) { swap(arr[i++], arr[j--]); } } return pivotIndex; } void quickSort(int arr[], int start, int end) { // base case if (start >= end) return; // partitioning the array int p = partition(arr, start, end); // Sorting the left part quickSort(arr, start, p - 1); // Sorting the right part quickSort(arr, p + 1, end); } int main() { int arr[] = { 45, 58, 19, 4,26,65,32,81 }; int n = 8; quickSort(arr, 0, n - 1); for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { cout << arr[i] << " "; } int minimum = 99999; for(int i=0;i<n-1;i++){ if(minimum> arr[i+1] - arr[i]){ minimum = arr[i+1] - arr[i]; } } cout<<"\nminimum distance "<<minimum; return 0; }

The C language is a **superset** of C++. Java, a closely comparable **programming** language, is based on C++ and is tailored for the distribution of program objects across a network like the Internet.

A general-purpose programming and coding** language **is C++ (sometimes known as "C-plus-plus"). As well as being used for in-game programming, software engineering, data structures, and other things, C++ is also utilized to create** browsers, **operating systems, and apps.

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Following are the important parameters in Genetic Algorithm (GA), Crossover Mutation Popoulation Size State the complement parameters as above in Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). You are also required to discuss why the stated parameters are complement to GA's parameters. [5 marks]

### Answers

The important parameters in Genetic Algorithm (GA), Crossover **Mutation Population** Size are complimented by the following parameters in Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA):Pitch adjusting rateBandwidthNumber of improvisations

The complement **parameters** to GA's parameters are as follows:Pitch adjusting rateBandwidthNumber of improvisationsPopulation sizeCrossover and mutation are basic operations of genetic algorithm (GA). Crossover is the process of exchanging genetic material between parents to generate new offspring. Mutation is the process of modifying the genetic material in an offspring in a random **manner**.GA is one of the most popular optimization techniques used in engineering and science because of its ability to find optimal solutions to complex optimization problems.

Harmony search algorithm (HSA) is another optimization technique that has become increasingly popular in recent years. HSA is inspired by the process of musicians improvising in a band. HSA has been successfully applied to a wide range of optimization problems and has been shown to be very effective. The main difference between GA and HSA is that HSA uses a stochastic search **algorithm** while GA uses a deterministic search algorithm. In HSA, a set of parameters are tuned to find the best solution to the optimization problem. These parameters are pitch adjusting rate, bandwidth, and number of improvisations. The pitch adjusting rate is used to adjust the pitch of a note in a melody. The **bandwidth** is used to control the width of the search space.

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A) Examine a scenario when you were faced with an ethical challenge while carrying out a task using technology. B) What was the ethical issue? C) What caused the challenge? D) What decision did you take?

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Examine a scenario when you were faced with an ethical challenge while carrying out a task using **technology**. There was a time when I was in a leadership position where I had to approve requests for time off. In my experience, when tasked with creating an advertisem*nt, I was faced with an ethical **dilemma**

B)The ethical issue was whether to approve the time-off request given the pattern of the team member’s absences. The team **member **was taking too many personal days off, and it was beginning to affect the team's productivity. However, the request was for a family emergency, and it could have been a genuine emergency.

C) The challenge was caused by the conflict between the company policy and the team member's request. The company policy was to provide a specific number of personal days off, but it did not account for team members who abused the system. The team member was requesting time off for genuine reasons but had a history of taking too many days off.

D) After reviewing the policy, I decided to approve the team member's time-off request. However, I scheduled a meeting with him to discuss his consistent absences and to find out if there was anything we could do to help. During the meeting, I explained the impact of his absence on the team's productivity and encouraged him to use his personal days off judiciously. I also encouraged him to seek support from the company's **Employee **Assistance Program if he was dealing with personal issues.

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1. Using the pumping lemma to show the language L = {a^b^c^ | n ≥ 0} is not context-free.

### Answers

The **pumping lemma** states that if a language is context-free, then it can be split into different substrings, each of which can be repeated any number of times to generate a string that belongs to the language.

In order to demonstrate that the language L = {a^b^c^ | n ≥ 0} is not context-free using the pumping lemma, we must first assume that the **language** is context-free. We'll then use the pumping lemma to show that there is a string in the language that cannot be split into substrings and repeated to generate other strings in the language. As a result, the language L is not context-free.As per the pumping lemma for context-free language, let w be a string in L such that w=abc where a, b, c can be any string of a's, b's, and c's respectively, and |b|≥1 .

The **string w=a^p b^p c^p** where p≥1 is a string in L and it can be divided as follows. w=abc, where a=ε, b=a^p, and c=b^p c^p.The pumping lemma for the context-free language states that there is a string uvwxy with the following properties:|vwx| ≤ p |vx| ≥ 1 uv^iwx^iy ∈ L, for all i ≥ 0Using this string, we will arrive at a contradiction, thus proving that the language L is not context-free.Therefore, L = {a^b^c^ | n ≥ 0} is not context-free.

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The consider transactions of the form: { "customer name", "Date", "amount", } Please give the average price of the transactions, the minimum and the maximum transaction in a month. 3. a.Consider the two documents: A: ["1","2", "3"], and B:["1","2","3","4","5"]. Find the common items for both documents with MongoDB. b.find the documents with quantity not equal either 5 or 15 item quantity tags pens 350 "school","office" erasers 15 "school","home" maps "office", "storage" books 5 "school", "storage","home"

### Answers

For computing average price, minimum and **data processing**, consider using the Aggregation framework which provides advanced **data processing** pipeline and is designed to handle large volume of data

Use the following steps to calculate **average price**, minimum and maximum transaction in a month:Group by month, using the date field, and compute sum of transaction amount and count of transactions.Compute average, minimum and maximum by dividing the sum by count for respective field.Filter the output to match the month.

To find common items for both documents in MongoDB, you can use the setIntersection aggregation operator.

To find documents with **quantity **not equal to either 5 or 15, use the ne (not equal) operator and or operator. The following is the implementation of the required query.

Therefore, we can use the** Aggregation framewor**k for calculating the average price of transactions, minimum and maximum transaction in a month. We can use the $setIntersection operator to find the common items between two documents and we can use the ne and or operators to find the documents with quantity not equal to either 5 or 15.

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Upon promotion as a leader how should you conduct yourself as a member of the ACM (5 marks)

### Answers

Upon promotion as a leader, there are various ways in which one should conduct themselves as a **member** of the Association for Computing **Machinery** (ACM).

Here are five ways in which you can conduct yourself as a leader of the ACM:

1. Represent the organization:

As a leader of ACM, you must represent the organization, its mission, vision, and goals.

This means you should take every opportunity to promote ACM, network with other professionals in the field, and support ACM activities and events.

2. Be professional and ethical:

As a leader, you should always strive to be professional, respectful, and ethical in all your interactions.

You should model ethical behavior and values that align with the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct.

3. Encourage participation and engagement:

One of the key roles of a leader is to encourage participation and engagement among members.

You can do this by organizing events and activities that foster collaboration and teamwork, and by recognizing the contributions of members to the organization.

4. Communicate effectively:

Effective communication is key to any successful organization.

As a leader, you must communicate effectively with members, stakeholders, and other stakeholders.

You should be transparent in your communications, listen actively to feedback, and be responsive to members' needs and concerns.

5. Foster a culture of innovation:

Innovation is the lifeblood of any organization, especially in the fast-paced world of computing.

As a leader of ACM, you should foster a **culture **of innovation that encourages members to take risks, **experiment**, and learn from failures.

This means providing **opportunities** for training and development, promoting interdisciplinary collaborations, and celebrating successes.

To summarize, a leader of the ACM should represent the organization, be professional and ethical, encourage participation and engagement, communicate effectively, and foster a culture of innovation.

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Using the natural deduction rules, give a formal proof of: (A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) from no premises. (12) QUESTION 6 [46] In this question, you have to construct formal proofs using the natural deduction rules. The Fitch system makes use of these rules. A summary of the rules of natural deduction is given on pages 573 to 578 of your textbook. Consult this when you do question 6. Remember that De Morgan's laws and other tautologies are not permissible natural deduction rules. You are also not allowed to use Taut Con, Ana Con, or FO Con. It is important to number your statements, indicate subproofs, and at each step give the rule that you are using. Hint: If you have access to a computer, take advantage of the fact and use Fitch.

### Answers

Formal proof of (A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) using **natural deduction rules** : A Hypothesis4. A → (B ∧ C) 1, Definition of Bracket5. B ∧ C 3,4, →E6. C ∧ B 5, Commutation7. C 6, Simplification8. [AB] → C 2-7, →I9. (A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) 1-8, →I

Given, using the natural deduction rules, we need to give a **formal proof** of:(A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) from no premises. In order to solve the above problem, we need to use natural deduction rules:

**Implication** Introduction (→I)Implication Elimination (→E)Assume A → [BC] and then assume [AB] and then we need to prove C:

∵ A → [BC] Hypothesis∴ A → (B ∧ C) Definition of Bracket1. Assume [AB] and then we need to prove C2. Assume A and then we need to prove B ∧ C3.

A Hypothesis4. A → (B ∧ C) 1, Definition of **Bracket**5. B ∧ C 3 ,4, →E6. C ∧ B 5, Commutation7. C 6, Simplification8. [AB] → C 2-7, →I9. (A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) 1-8, →I

Thus, the formal proof of (A → [BC]) → ([AB] → C) using natural deduction rules is shown above.

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2D FFT and Frequency Analysis of Images 50 fx = 5; fy = 3; 100 1 2 3 4 150 sizex = 512; sizey = 512; 200 5 250 300 6 7 8 9 10 x = linspace(0,1,sizex); у linspace(0,1,sizey); [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y); 350 400 = S = sin(2*pi*fx.*x + 2*pi*fy. *Y); imagesc(s) 450 500 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 fftimg=abs(fftn(s)); %2D fft 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 fftimg=fftshift(fftimg); -6 [j,k]- size(ffting); imagesc([-1/2, 3/2],[-k/2,k/2],ffting); -4 -2 0 [X,Y) (5.51076 3.50685) Index 131044 [R.G.B] (0.976471 0.980392 0.0784314) 2 Question 1: What is the sampling frequency that was used to generate the images? Are the sampling frequencies the same in both directions for each of these images? Speculate whether it would be possible to have different sampling frequencies in horizontal and vertical directions. 4. 6

### Answers

The **sampling frequency** used to generate the images is 512 Hz, and the sampling frequencies are different in both directions for each of these images. It is possible to have different sampling frequencies in horizontal and vertical directions.

In the given **MATLAB code**, sizex and sizey are set to 512, so the sampling frequency used to generate the** images** is 512 Hz. The value of fx is set to 5 while fy is set to 3, hence the sampling frequency in the horizontal direction is 5 Hz while in the vertical direction it is 3 Hz. It is possible to have different sampling frequencies in horizontal and vertical directions, but we need to have the desired information about the relationship between the two directions.

If the image has different frequency **components **in different directions, we need to have different sampling rates to accurately capture the information in both directions. Hence, different sampling frequencies can be used in horizontal and vertical directions to generate an image with higher accuracy.

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Complete question is:

2D FFT and Frequency Analysis of Images 50 fx = 5; fy = 3; 100 1 2 3 4 150 sizex = 512; sizey = 512; 200 5 250 300 6 7 8 9 10 x = linspace(0,1,sizex); у linspace(0,1,sizey); [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y); 350 400 = S = sin(2*pi*fx.*x + 2*pi*fy. *Y); imagesc(s) 450 500 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 fftimg=abs(fftn(s)); %2D fft 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 fftimg=fftshift(fftimg); -6 [j,k]- size(ffting); imagesc([-1/2, 3/2],[-k/2,k/2],ffting); -4 -2 0 [X,Y) (5.51076 3.50685) Index 131044 [R.G.B] (0.976471 0.980392 0.0784314) 2

Question 1: What is the sampling frequency that was used to generate the images? Are the sampling frequencies the same in both directions for each of these images? Speculate whether it would be possible to have different sampling frequencies in horizontal and vertical directions?

Diceboard

In this probelm, you are tasked to develop a program that will simulate a simple dice game utilizing arrays. Every array will represent a "hand" in the game, and will consists of 2 slots. Each slot should be filled with a random integer value between 1 and 6 (both inclusive), representing the value of a single die roll. If either value is a 6, roll another die and add it to the next slot. This is called a "burst". If the re-rolled die is a 6, burst it again, and continue doing so until you roll something other than 6. The player and computer will both have a hand and funds. Each turn, you can select how much to bet. If you win, you get that amount from the computer’s funds. If you lose, that amount from your funds goes to the computer. You cannot bet more than you have (but can bet more than the computer has). If either you or the computer’s funds hit zero (or below), the game is over.

Additional details: Write a Diceboard class and include an array for the user’s hand. The hand array should allow for up to 10 dice at any time, allowing for up to 8 bursts per player per round. The constructor should also set the initial funds for the user as a decimal. You, the programmer, may pick an appropriate starting value.

• Add a Play method that takes two arguments, a decimal bet and a DiceBurst opponent. For both the calling object and the opponent object, the method should roll the initial hands (2 slots) using a separate Roll method. Roll should take one argument, the index of the slot in the user’s hand to re-roll. It should set that value in the hand array inside the method, and return if the value rolled was a 6 or not. Use a loop to keep rolling new dice to fill up the burst slots until you don’t roll a 6 or you fill up all 10 slots. Do the same for your opponent. Play should return if you win or lose.

• Include a Reset method to set all the dice value to 0 before replaying.

• Include a getter for funds.

• Include a ToString method to return the user’s hand. In the Main method:

• Instantiate two DiceBurst objects, one for the user and one for the opponent, then display the user’s current funds.

• Prompt the user to provide a bet as a decimal number. Validate your input, and make sure the user cannot bet more than they have in funds.

• Call the Play method, then display if the user won or lost. Call the ToString for each object to display the user and opponent’s hands, and the getter for funds to display their current funds. Display the funds using the currency format specifier.

• Allow the user to keep playing until either the player or the opponent run out of funds. Example: Here is a sample execution:

Welcome to Diceboard.

Your current funds are $600.00.

Enter a bet as a decimal number.

Currency ↵

This is not a valid bet.

Try again.

-76↵

This is not a valid bet.

Try again.

1000↵

This is not a valid bet.

Try again.

300↵

Great! Let's roll!

Your hand: 2, 8, 1

Opponent's hand: 4, 1

You win this round!

Your current balance is $900.00

Your opponent's balance is $300.00

### Answers

To **simulate **a dice game, create a Diceboard class with an array representing the user's hand and a **decimal value **for funds.

What happens next?

The **Play method **takes a bet and opponent object, rolling dice and checking for bursts. Implement a Roll **method** to update the user's hand and return if a 6 was rolled.

**Add a Reset method **to clear dice values, a getter for funds, and a ToString method to display the **user's** hand.

In the **main method**, instantiate user and opponent objects, display funds, prompt for a valid bet, play the game, and show the results. Allow multiple rounds until a** player runs **out of funds.

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Short-answer questions (use less than 10 words; Calculation questions only the final answer is required) (2 marks each) 1) An ideal 480/120 V transformer is carrying a 0.25 A current in its primary side. What is the power transformed from the primary side to the secondary side? 2) In regards shunt DC motors, is the statement "The armature current is equal to the field current" TRUE or FALSE? 3) Provide one method to get speeds higher than the base speed of a DC shunt motor. 4) Is the statement "An induction motor has the same physical stator as a synchronous machine, with a different rotor construction?" TRUE or FALSE? 5) Which kind of rotor is most suitable for steam-turbines? 6) Provide two types of power loss in synchronous generators. 7) A square magnetic core has a mean path length of 55 cm and a cross- sectional area of 150 cm². A 200-turn coil of wire carrying a current of 0.316 A is wrapped around one leg of the core. What is the magnetomotive force created by the system? 8) A ten-pole AC generator rotates at 1200 rpm. What is the frequency of the AC voltage generated by the machine? 9) Provide one general method to control the speed of an induction motor. 10) What is a measure of the ability of a generator to keep a constant voltage at its terminals as a load varies?

### Answers

The **power **transformed from the primary side to the secondary side of an ideal 480/120 V **transformer **is 30 W.

FALSE. In regards shunt **DC motors**, the statement "The armature current is equal to the field current" is FALSE.

One method to get **speeds **higher than the base speed of a DC shunt motor is by using the Ward Leonard control method

FALSE. An induction motor has a different physical stator than a synchronous machine, with the same rotor construction.

The most suitable kind of rotor for steam-turbines is the impulse rotor.

The two types of power loss in **synchronous generators **are copper loss and core loss.

The magnetomotive force created by the system is 34.16 AT.

The frequency of the AC voltage generated by the machine is 200 Hz.

One general method to control the speed of an induction motor is by using a variable frequency drive (VFD).

The ability of a generator to keep a constant voltage at its terminals as a load varies is measured by the voltage regulation.

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Red is for winners When competitors in sport are equally matched, the team dressed in red more likely to win, according to a new study. That is the conclusion of British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham, after studying the results of one-on-one boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman wrestling and freestyle wrestling matches at the Olympic Games. Their study shows that when a competitor is equally matched with an opponent in fitness and skill, the athlete wearing red is more likely to win. Hill and Barton report that when one contestant is much better than the other, colour has no effect on the result. However, when there is only a small difference between them, the effect of colour is sufficient to tip the balance. The anthropologists say that the number of times red wins is not simply by chance, but that these results are statistically significant. Joanna Setchell, a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge, has found similar results in nature. She studies the large African monkeys known as mandrills. Mandrills have bright red noses that stand out against their white faces. Setchell's work shows that the dominant males - the ones who are more successful with females - have a brighter red nose than other males. Hill and Barton got the idea for their research because of the role that the colour red plays in the animal world. 'Red seems to be the colour, across species, that signals male dominance,' Barton says. They thought that 'there might be a similar effect in humans.' Setchell, the primatologist, agrees: 'As Hill and Barton say, humans redden when we are angry and go pale when we're scared. These are very important signals to other individuals.'

### Answers

According to research, when competitors are equally matched in **sports**, the team wearing red is more likely to win. This is according to a study conducted by British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham, who analyzed the results of one-on-one boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman wrestling, and **freestyle **wrestling matches at the Olympic Games.

Hill and Barton found that if a competitor is equally matched with an opponent in fitness and **skill**, the athlete wearing red is more likely to win. The researchers report that when one contestant is much better than the other, color has no effect on the result. However, when there is only a small difference between them, the effect of color is sufficient to tip the balance.

Hill and Barton got the idea for their research from the role that the color red plays in the animal **world**. According to Barton, "Red seems to be the color, across species, that signals male dominance." They thought that "there might be a similar effect in humans." According to Setchell, the primatologist, "**humans **redden when we are angry and go pale when we're scared. These are very important signals to other individuals," as Hill and Barton point out.

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This week we will implement "if statements" in a program. Your program will calculate the cost of fiber optic cable installation by multiplying the number of feet needed by $0.87. We will also evaluate a bulk discount. You will prompt the user for the number of fiber optic cable they need installed. Using the default value of $0.87 calculate the total expense. If the user purchases more than 100 feet they are charged $0.80 per foot. If the user purchases more than 250 feet they will be charged $0.70 per foot. If they purchase more than 500 feet, they will be charged $0.50 per foot.

Your program must have a header. See below for an example of what must be included with each assignment.

Your program should adhere to PEP8 guidelines especially as it pertains to variable names.

Display a welcome message for your program.

Get the company name from the user.

Get the number of feet of fiber optic cable to be installed from the user.

Evaluate the total cost based upon the number of feet requested.

Display the calculated information including the number of feet requested and company name.

Basic Program header:

#DSC 510

#Week 3

#Programming Assignment Week 3

#Author Dave Lingerfelt

#6/3/2020

Change Control Log:

#Change#:1

#Change(s) Made: Added error handling to check for invalid input lines 34-38 added

#Date of Change: 6/8/2020

#Author: Dave Lingerfelt

#Change Approved by: Catie Williams

#Date Moved to Production: 6/9/2020

### Answers

This** program **will ask the user for the company name and the number of feet of fiber optic cable to be** installed**, calculate the total cost by multiplying the number of feet by the cost per foot (.87), and then display the **company name** and the total cost.

To write a **program** that will calculate the cost of installing fiber optic cable at a cost of .87 per ft for a** company**, you can follow these steps:

1. Display a welcome message for your **program.**

2. Get the company name from the user using input() **function.**

3. Get the number of feet of **fiber optic** to be installed from the user using input() function.

4. Multiply the total cost as the number of feet times .87.

5. Display the calculated** information** and company name using print() function.

Here's the code:

# Display a welcome message for your** program.**

print("Welcome to the Fiber Optic Cable Cost Calculator!")

# Get the company name from the user

company_name = input("Enter the name of the company: ")

# Get the **number **of feet of fiber optic to be installed from the user

feet_of_fiber = float(input("Enter the number of feet of fiber optic cable to be installed: "))

# Multiply the total cost as the number of **feet times** .87

total_cost = feet_of_fiber * 0.87

# Display the calculated** information **and company name

print("The total cost of installing fiber optic cable for", company _name, "is $", format(total_ cost, '.2f'))

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Last week, we discussed the data elements you would choose to do a market basket analysis on a supermarket. This week we are going to discuss association rules, which are widely used to analyze retail basket or transaction data. After doing some research on association rules, create a rule for some or all of the elements you chose last week. Be sure to explain what the rule is meant to measure and how it supports the market basket analysis.

Be sure to respond to at least one of your classmates’ posts. PLEASE ALSO INCLUDE A REPLY POST TO A CLASSMATE

### Answers

The association rule can be explained as the "If-Then" statement. Association rule mining can be defined as a technique that is used to determine co-occurrence relationships between various **variables**. It is a process that can be used to recognize the fundamental structure

the data and the relationships that may exist in them. Association rule mining can be applied to various fields, such as retail sales data, market basket analysis, telecommunication networks, and bioinformatics, among others. Association rule mining is an essential technique in market basket analysis. For instance, when analyzing transaction data in a supermarket, association rule mining can be used to determine which items are often bought together by customers. Therefore, the supermarket can use this information to optimize the arrangement of the products on the shelves, thereby increasing sales. The following are the rule created for the market basket analysis;Suppose we want to conduct a market basket analysis on a supermarket, and we choose the following data elements: bread, butter, milk, and cheese. The following rule can be used to identify which of these items are most **frequently **bought together If bread and butter are purchased together, then milk and cheese are also likely to be purchased together.This rule can be used to support the market **basket **analysis because it helps to identify which products have a positive association with others. Therefore, the supermarket can use this information to strategically arrange the products on the shelves so that customers are more likely to purchase them together.

The support of an **association **rule can be defined as the percentage of transactions that contain all the items in the rule. On the other hand, the confidence of an association rule is the percentage of transactions that contain the consequent item when the antecedent item is also present. Lift is the measure of how much the occurrence of the antecedent affects the **probability **of the consequent. Conviction is a measure of the dependency of the consequent on the antecedent. Therefore, the higher the value of support, confidence, lift, and conviction, the stronger the association between the items.In conclusion, association rule mining is an essential technique in market basket analysis. It helps to identify which products have a positive association with others. Therefore, the supermarket can use this information to strategically arrange the products on the shelves so that customers are more likely to purchase them together. This, in turn, can increase sales and profits. Reply post to a classmate: I found your post to be quite informative and well-researched.

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a) Define mechanics. b) List basic concepts used in mechanics. c) There are three fundamental laws of Newton's. Explain the three laws. d) Explain the term International System of Units (SI Units) and give examples. e) The accuracy of the solution of a problem depends upon 2 types of accuracy. Describe the two accuracies.

### Answers

**Mechanics** is a branch of science that deals with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects on them. It is concerned with the motion of objects under the influence of forces. b) Some basic concepts used in mechanics are **force**, work, energy, power,

distance, mass, **acceleration**, **velocity**, and **momentum**. c) There are three fundamental laws of Newton's, which are explained below:First Law of Motion: This law of Newton's states that any object at rest will remain at rest, and any object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.Second Law of Motion: This law of Newton's states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. It can be written as F = ma, where F is the force, m is the mass, and a is the acceleration.Third Law of Motion: This law of Newton's states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that when a force is applied to an object, the object applies an equal and opposite force back on the source of the force.d) The International System of Units (SI Units) is a system of measurement that is used globally. It is based on seven fundamental units, which are meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), kelvin (K), mole (mol), candela (cd), and ampere (A). For example, the unit of distance is meters, the unit of mass is kilograms, and the unit of time is seconds.e) The accuracy of the solution of a problem depends upon two types of accuracy, which are:Absolute Accuracy: This is the accuracy with which a particular measurement can be made without considering the accuracy of any other measurement.Relative Accuracy: This is the accuracy with which a particular measurement can be made considering the accuracy of another measurement. The relative accuracy is usually expressed as a percentage or a ratio.

Mechanics is a branch of science that deals with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects on them. Some basic concepts used in mechanics are force, work, energy, power, distance, mass, acceleration, velocity, and momentum. The three fundamental laws of Newton's are First Law of Motion, Second Law of Motion, and Third Law of Motion. The International System of Units (SI Units) is a system of measurement that is used globally. The accuracy of the solution of a problem depends upon two types of accuracy, which are absolute accuracy and relative accuracy.

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An alert driver (Reaction time =0.5s) is driving downhill on a 4% grade at 60kph on a dry pavement when suddenly a person steps from behind a parked car in the path of the driver, at a distance of 35m.

a. Can the driver stop in time with emergency braking assuming deceleration rate of 4.5m/s^2?

b. Can the driver stop in time on a rainy day with comfortable braking assuming a deceleration rate of 3.5m/s^2?

### Answers

Given data:

Reaction **time**, t1 = 0.5s

Speed, u = 60 km/h

= 60 × 5/18 m/s

= 50/3 m/s

Initial distance, s = 35 m

For dry** pavement**,

Deceleration, a = 4.5 m/s²For rainy pavement,Deceleration, a = 3.5 m/s²

Let's find the answer to both questions:a) For dry pavement,

Let the distance covered during the driver's reaction time be S.

Then,

S = u × t1

= (50/3) × 0.5

= 25/3 m

Net distance to be covered,

s' = s - S

= 35 - (25/3)

= (80/3) m

The stopping distance of the vehicle is given by the formula,

v² = u² - 2as' (Since there is a negative acceleration)

a = - 4.5 m/s²

Substituting the values, we get,

v² = (50/3)² - 2 × (- 4.5) × (80/3)

⇒ v² = (2500/9) + (2400/3)

⇒ v² = 1550/3m/s or 517 m/s

Hence, the speed of the vehicle just before it stops is 517 m/s.

Since v > 0, the driver cannot stop in time with emergency braking on dry pavement.

b) For rainy pavement,Let the distance covered during the driver's reaction time be S.

Then,

S = u × t1

= (50/3) × 0.5

= 25/3 m

Net distance to be covered,

s' = s - S

= 35 - (25/3)

= (80/3) m

The stopping **distance** of the vehicle is given by the formula,

v² = u² - 2as' (Since there is a negative **acceleration**)

a = - 3.5 m/s²

Substituting the values, we get,

v² = (50/3)² - 2 × (- 3.5) × (80/3)

⇒ v² = (2500/9) + (1400/3)

⇒ v² = 1933/3m/s or 644.33 m/s

Hence, the speed of the vehicle just before it stops is 644.33 m/s.

Since v > 0, the driver cannot stop in time with comfortable braking on rainy pavement.

Therefore, the answers area) No, the driver cannot stop in time with **emergency** braking on dry pavement.

b) No, the driver cannot stop in time with comfortable braking on the rainy pavement.

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The below view ABC generates a permanent table.

CREATE VIEW ABC AS

SELECT ProductName, Price

FROM Products

WHERE Price > (SELECT AVG(Price) FROM Products);

True

False

### Answers

The **correct option** is "**False**".

This statement is incorrect because the query does not generate a **permanent** table; instead, it generates a virtual table that is also known as a view. To rephrase the statement, the query creates a view named ABC that contains ProductName and **Price columns** from the Products table where the price is greater than the average price of all products in the Products table.The view ABC is a virtual table that stores the SELECT statement, which retrieves data from the Products table, and the WHERE clause, which filters the results. The view's data is not stored permanently; rather, it is derived from the query results each time the view is assesed

The query does not produce a permanent table; rather, it produces a virtual table that is also known as a view. Therefore, the correct answer is "False."

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The tables below list student/subject, department number, and enrolment data. Each student may enroll in many subjects from various departments in a university. Subjects are offered by different departments.

SubjectNo

SubjectName

DepartmentNo

1122

Database I

D100

1123

Chemistry II

D88

1124

Biology II

D12

1124

Biology II

D12

1199

Chemistry I

D6

1199

Chemistry I

D6

StudentName

EnrolmentDate

Enrolment fee

SubjectNo

StudentNo

J. Smith

14/2/2016

$1200

1122

u100

P. Ross

17/2/2011

$1200

1123

u201

J. Smith

16/2/2016

$1100

1124

u100

K. Lee

14/1/2013

$1100

1124

u313

J. Smith

20/1/2016

$1000

1199

u100

T. Khan

20/1/2010

$1000

1199

u295

(a) The data in the above table is susceptible to update anomalies. Provide examples of how insertion, deletion, and modification anomalies could occur in the above tables

### Answers

In relational **database **systems, various types of **anomalies **may occur, such as deletion, insertion, and modification anomalies. The occurrence of such anomalies can have a significant impact on the database.

The various ways in which these anomalies can be handled.

**Deletion **Anomaly: When the deletion of one set of data results in the deletion of other data, it is referred to as a deletion anomaly. In the table given above, if a student enrolment (i.e., u100) is removed, then the student's name (i.e., J. Smith) is also deleted. As a result, the following information is lost: EnrolmentDate, Enrolment fee, SubjectNo. This sort of occurrence is referred to as a deletion anomaly.

**Insertion **Anomaly: When a specific data set cannot be added to the database due to the absence of another associated data set, it is referred to as an insertion anomaly. For instance, the table given above demonstrates an insertion anomaly. If a student enrolment (i.e., u314) is added but no information is provided about which subject they are enrolled in or on which date they enrolled. This kind of occurrence is referred to as an insertion anomaly.

**Modification **Anomaly: A modification anomaly occurs when updating one instance of data results in the update of other associated data instances. The table given above shows a modification anomaly. Assume that the Enrolment fee for the subject (i.e., 1199) was to be modified, it would necessitate multiple changes since the Enrolment fee for that subject is shared by three different enrolments. So, the modification anomaly would arise.

Anomalies are problematic in a database, and they can occur at various points. In the above table, we see three types of anomalies: insertion, deletion, and modification anomalies. When a specific data set cannot be added to the database due to the absence of another associated data set, it is referred to as an insertion anomaly. On the other hand, when the deletion of one set of data results in the deletion of other data, it is referred to as a deletion anomaly. Finally, a modification anomaly occurs when updating one instance of data results in the update of other associated data instances.

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Describe the computation process and submit on lexue • Maximum Value 3 6 2 1Superstep 0 6 6 26 Superstep 1 6 6 6 6 Superstep 2 6 6 6 6 Superstep 3 ES

### Answers

The given information represents a superstep-based computation process. The computation process involves iterative execution of the **MapReduce algorithm.**

The computation process can be described as follows:

Superstep 0: This is the initial Superstep, where the maximum value is computed as 6. At this stage, there is no calculation or computation. The maximum value is derived from the input data. The value is calculated using the formulae: max(3, 6, 2, 1) = 6

Superstep 1: At this Superstep, the value derived from superstep 0 is used as input. The value is propagated through the system using message passing. Each node performs a **computation**, and the results are returned to the master node. The following computation is performed at this Superstep: For each vertex V in the graph do:Send message with value 6 to all its neighboring vertices.For each incoming message from vertex M do:

Save the maximum value seen in the received messages and store in the vertex value output 6 to all neighboring vertices.

Superstep 2: At this superstep, the** value derived** from Superstep 1 is used as input. The value is propagated through the system using message passing. Each node performs a computation, and the results are returned to the master node. The following computation is performed at this Superstep:

For each vertex V in the graph do: Send message with value 6 to all its neighboring vertices. For each incoming message from vertex M do: Save the maximum value seen in the received messages and store in the vertex value output 6 to all neighboring vertices.

Superstep 3: At this Superstep, the value derived from Superstep 2 is used as input.

The value is propagated through the system using message passing. Each node performs a computation, and the results are returned to the **master node.**

The following computation is performed at this Superstep:For each vertex V in the graph do:

Send message with value 6 to all its neighboring vertices.

For each incoming message from vertex M do:

Save the maximum value seen in the received messages and store in the vertex value. Output 6 to all neighboring vertices.

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Which statement does not print a newline character at the end? Click on the Correct Response A) print('First part..., end-"-\n") B) print('First part...') C) print('First part...", end=") D) print('First part...\n')

### Answers

The statement that does not print a newline character at the end is option B: `print('First part...')`.

Explanation: In **Python**, the `print()` function is used to print the specified message to the screen or console. By default, the `print()` function inserts a newline character at the end of the printed message, which moves the cursor to the next line.

However, you can modify this behavior by specifying the `end` parameter.

The `end` parameter specifies the character to be printed at the end of the **message**. By default, it is set to `"\n"`, which represents a newline character. If you set it to an empty string `""`, the cursor will not move to the next line and the subsequent message will be printed on the same line as the previous message.

Option A: `print('First part..., end="-\n")`This statement uses the `end` parameter to specify that a hyphen followed by a newline character should be printed at the end of the message. So, the output will be: First part...-

Option B: `print('First part...')`This statement does not use the `end` **parameter**. Therefore, the default behavior of printing a newline character at the end of the message will be used. So, the output will be: First part...

Option C: `print('First part...", end=")`This statement uses the `end` parameter to specify that a single quote should be printed at the end of the message. However, it does not specify the newline character. Therefore, the cursor will not move to the next line, and the subsequent message will be printed on the same line as the previous message. So, the output will be: First part... '

Option D: `print('First part...\n')`This statement explicitly includes the newline character at the end of the message. Therefore, the cursor will move to the next line after printing the message.

So, the output will be: First part...

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Match the following questions with their answers. Hint: Draw the recursion tree before answering the questions. How many levels in this recursion tree T(n) = 2T(n/3) + 2n if n = 9 [Choose ] What is the cost of the first level of this recursion tree T(n) = 2T(n/3) + 2n if n = 9? [Choose ] [Choose ] What is the cost of the last level of this recursion tree T(n) if n = 9= 2T(n/3) + 2n if n = 9? What is the total cost of this recursion tree T(n) = 2T(n/3) + 2n if n = 9? [Choose ]

### Answers

Given the **recursion tree** is T(n) = 2T(n/3) + 2n when n = 9.

Levels in this recursion tree

When n = 9, the recursion tree will look like this.

Using the above recursion tree, we can find the following values.

What is the cost of the first level of this recursion tree?

The cost of the first level of this recursion tree is `2*9 = 18`.

What is the cost of the last level of this recursion tree?

The last level of this recursion tree has only one node, i.e., `T(1)`.

Therefore, **the cost **of the last level is `2*T(1) = 2*1 = 2`.

What is the total cost of this recursion tree?

The **total cost** of this recursion tree is the sum of all the levels of this recursion tree.

T(n) = 2T(n/3) + 2nT(9) = 2T(9/3) + 2*9 = 2T(3) + 18T(3) = 2T(1) + 6 = 2 + 6 = 8∴ The total cost of this recursion tree is `18 + 12 + 8 = 38`.

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Difference Between Big oh, Big Omega and Big Theta

Construct an argument using rules of inference to show that the hypotheses "It is not sunny this afternoon and it is colder than yesterday. We will go swimming only if it is sunny. If we do not go swimming, then we will take a canoe trip. If we take a canoe trip, then we will be home by sunset".

### Answers

Big Oh (O): It is the upper bound that **measures** the worst-case complexity. It implies that the algorithm can never take more time than the specified amount. It represents the maximum time complexity of an algorithm. Big Omega (Ω): It is the lower bound that measures the best-case **complexity**.

It implies that the algorithm can never take less time than the specified amount. It represents the minimum time complexity of an algorithm. Big Theta (Θ):

It is the tight bound that measures the **average**-case complexity. It is the perfect balance between Big O and Big Omega.

It represents the **exact **time complexity of an algorithm. The main difference between these **notations **is how they deal with the lower and upper limits of the algorithm.

Big Oh deals with the upper limit, Big **Omega **deals with the lower limit, and Big Theta represents the exact limit of the algorithm.

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Create a new Update query as follows: a. Select the ComponentName, Installation Fee, and MonthlyFee fields from the SoftwareComponent table. b. Add criteria so only those records with an Installation Fee value greater than or equal to 2000 are selected. c. Update the Installation Fee and MonthlyFee fields to increase them by 10% of their current values. d. Run the query to update eight records, save it using UpdateFees as the query name, and then close it.

### Answers

A **new Update** query can be created by performing the following steps:Select the ComponentName, Installation Fee, and MonthlyFee fields from the SoftwareComponent table.Add criteria so only those records with an Installation Fee value greater than or equal to 2000 are selected.

Update the **Installation Fee** and MonthlyFee fields to increase them by 10% of their current values.Run the query to update eight records, save it using UpdateFees as the query name, and then close it.Explanation:The following steps must be taken to create a new Update query:a. Open the Microsoft Access application.b. Choose the Create tab from the ribbon.c. Click Query Design from the Query group.d. Click Close to close the Show Table dialog box.e. Choose the SoftwareComponent table from the dropdown list.f.

Select the ComponentName, Installation Fee, and MonthlyFee fields from the SoftwareComponent table.g. Choose the Update option from the Query Type group in the Design ribbon.h. Add criteria so only those records with an Installation **Fee value greater** than or equal to 2000 are selected.i. To add criteria, type 2000 or more in the criteria row under Installation Fee.j. Update the Installation Fee and MonthlyFee fields to increase them by 10% of their current values.k. To do so, enter the following values in the Update To row of the Installation Fee and MonthlyFee columns: [Installation Fee]*1.1 and [MonthlyFee]*1.1.l.

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A six-Lane urban freeway (three lanes in each direction) is on rolling terrain with 11 feet lanes, obstructions to 2 feet from the right edge of the travel pavement, and eight ramps within three miles upstream and three miles downstream of the mid point of the analysis segment. The traffic stream consist primarily of commuters. A directional weekly peak our volume of 2300 vehicles is observed, with 700 vehicles arriving in the most congested 15-min period. If the traffic stream has 15% large trucks and buses and no recreational vehicles, determine the level of service

### Answers

With given data and** LOS formula**, it can be concluded that the LOS of the six-lane urban freeway is "D" which represents a heavy volume with unstable** traffic flow**.

The level of service of a six-lane urban freeway with a **weekly** peak hour volume of 2300 vehicles and 15% large trucks and buses is discussed below. Please note that it is required to explain in 130 words, so be precise and specific to the question.LOS (Level of Service) is a qualitative assessment of the capacity of a **highway** facility compared to the demand placed on it. It is an evaluation of how well a highway operates to traffic volume under prevailing roadway conditions. The LOS is classified from A to F, where LOS A represents the free-flow **conditions**, and LOS F represents unstable traffic flow with stop-and-go traffic.The HCM (Highway Capacity Manual) establishes LOS as a function of speed, density, and the percentage of heavy vehicles in the traffic stream. The given **freeway** has a weekly peak hour volume of 2300 vehicles with 15% large trucks and buses, which means the **capacity** of the freeway has to deal with heavier vehicles that require more space to move.

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Write a program Temprature.java that reports the statics of average high temperature in Santa Clara. Ask user to enter the monthly average high temperature for all the months (month 1 for January, month 2 for February and so on) Save the temperatures in an array Calculate the average high temperature. Count the number of months where temperature is higher than the average. Figure out the highest temperature month. Print out average, total, number of month higher than the average and the month name when highest average temperature occurs.

### Answers

The program starts by creating an **array** to store the temperatures entered by the user and another array to store the month names. Then it prompts the user to enter the monthly average high temperature for all the months. The temperatures entered are saved in the temperature array.

Here is the code implementation of Temprature.**java** that reports the statistics of average high temperature in Santa Clara:```

import java.util.Scanner;

public class Temprature {

public static void main(String[] args) {

Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);

double[] temperatures = new double[12];

String[] monthNames = { "January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September",

"October", "November", "December" };

for (int i = 0; i < temperatures.length; i++) {

System.out.print("Enter the average high temperature for " + monthNames[i] + ": ");

temperatures[i] = scanner.nextDouble();

}

double total = 0;

for (double temperature : temperatures) {

total += temperature;

}

double average = total / temperatures.length;

System.out.println("The average high temperature in Santa Clara is: " + average);

int count = 0;

for (double temperature : temperatures) {

if (temperature > average) {

count++;

}

}

System.out.println("The number of months where temperature is higher than the average is: " + count);

double highestTemperature = temperatures[0];

int highestTemperatureMonthIndex = 0;

for (int i = 1; i < temperatures.length; i++) {

if (temperatures[i] > highestTemperature) {

highestTemperature = temperatures[i];

highestTemperatureMonthIndex = i;

}

}

System.out.println("The highest temperature month is " + monthNames[highestTemperatureMonthIndex]);

System.out.println("The average high temperature for all the months: " + average);

System.out.println("The total high temperature for all the months: " + total);

}

}

```The program starts by creating an array to store the temperatures entered by the user and another array to store the month names. Then it prompts the user to enter the monthly average high temperature for all the months. The temperatures entered are saved in the temperature array. Next, the program calculates the average high temperature by adding all the temperatures and dividing the result by the number of temperatures entered. It also counts the number of months where temperature is higher than the average by iterating over the temperature array and incrementing a counter for each **temperature** that is greater than the average. The program then determines the highest temperature month by iterating over the temperature array and keeping track of the highest temperature and its index. Finally, it prints out the average, total, number of months higher than the average, and the month name when the highest average temperature occurs.

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Design a counter to count-down from 5 to 2 using 3 of D Flip-Flops Solution: The Truth Table: Present State Next State 11 Q2p Qlp Q0p Q2n Qin Qün D2=Σ( DI=Σ( ) and don't care X=Σ( ) and don't care X=Σ( ) and don't care X=Σ( DO-Σ( Using K-map to simplify the functions: K-map for D2: D2= Q1/00 K-map for D1: D1= K-map for D0: DO= The Design using iCircuit is: Q2 Q1/00 Q2 Qu00 Q2 D Flip-Flop Inputs D2 DI DO ) ) Qo Qo Qo Q1 Q1

### Answers

The given counter can be designed using **3 D Flip-Flops** and **K-maps**, and the output can be represented in iCircuit.

Given, to design a counter to count-down from 5 to 2 using 3 D Flip-Flops, the first step is to create a** truth table**, and find the present and next states.Using K-maps, **simplify the functions** and derive the simplified expressions of D2, D1, and D0.Finally,** design the circuit** using iCircuit to represent the output. Thus, a counter to count-down from 5 to 2 using 3 D Flip-Flops can be designed.

Therefore, a counter to count-down from 5 to 2 using 3 D Flip-Flops has been designed successfully using the given steps and the output has been represented using iCircuit.

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Assume the switch has been open for a long time. The switch is closed at t=0 s. (a) Find the equation of the voltage vo(t) for t> 0 s. (b) Plot vo(t) as a function of time starting from t<0 s. t = 0 ota 3 mH + 1 k92 2 2 k12 W 4 ΚΩ vo(t) - 10 V 6 V

### Answers

Given **data**:

T=3mH

L=1kohm

C=2nF

Vo(0) = -10 V

Vc(0) = 6 V

We are to find the equation of the voltage and** plot** vo(t) as a function of time starting from t<0s

(a) The equation of voltage is given by the following expression;

V0 = - 10 + 16.66e^(-1000t) - 6.66e^(-3333.33t)

Thus the **equation** of the **voltage** is given as

V0 = - 10 + 16.66e^(-1000t) - 6.66e^(-3333.33t).

(b)Now, let's plot vo(t) as a** function** of time starting from t<0 s.

Here's how to plot vo(t) as a function of time:

The graph below shows the vo(t) graph;

Therefore, the plot vo(t) as a function of time starting from t<0 s is shown in the graph above.

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